Croatia - Italy - Montenegro: Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar

This property consists of 15 components of defence works in Italy, Croatia and Montenegro, spanning more than 1,000 kilometres between the Lombard region of Italy and the eastern Adriatic Coast. The fortifications throughout the Stato da Terraprotected the Republic of Venice from other European powers to the northwest and those of the Stato da Mar protected the sea routes and ports in the Adriatic Sea to the Levant. They were necessary to support the expansion and authority of the Serenissima. The introduction of gunpowder led to significant shifts in military techniques and architecture that are reflected in the design of so-called alla modernaI bastioned, fortifications, which were to spread throughout Europe.

Source: UNESCO World Heritage

Postcard 1A - ITALY - Palmanova
Aerial View of fortress town of Palmanova. Thanks to Christina of Italy.

Postcard 1B - ITALY - Bergamo
Upper Town of Bergamo. Thanks to Jean-Pierre of France for mailing from Bergamo in August 2016.

Postcard 2 - CROATIA - Zadar
Church of Saint Donat from 9th Century, Zadar, Croatia. Thanks to Antonella of Croatia.

Postcard 3A - MONTENEGRO - Kotor
Kotor. Postmarked October 17, 2011 and arrived in Penang on October 29, 2011. Thanks to Ruth of USA.

Postcard 3B - MONTENEGRO - Kotor
Kotor of Montenegro. Postmarked October 7, 2011 and arrived in Penang on October 21, 2011. Thanks to Luk of Belgium who was visiting Montenegro.

Postcard 3C - MONTENEGRO - Kotor
Kotor is a twenty centuries old and is a UNESCO World Heritage city. Nice stamps of Crna Gora - Montenegro used. Thanks to Michael of South Africa.

Postcard 3D - MONTENEGRO - Kotor
Nice postcard of Kotor, Crna Gora - Montenegro. Postmarked at Niksic on Jan 4, 2010 and arrived in Penang on Jan 19, 2010. Thanks to Milica of Montenegro.

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